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Cardiorespiratory risk factors as predictors of 40-year mortality in women and men

Ferrie, JE; Singh-Manoux, A; Kivimaki, M; Mindell, J; Breeze, E; Smith, GD; Shipley, MJ; (2009) Cardiorespiratory risk factors as predictors of 40-year mortality in women and men. Heart , 95 (15) 1250 - 1257. 10.1136/hrt.2008.164251.

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Objective: Most historical studies of cardiorespiratory risk factors as predictors of mortality have been based on men. This study examines whether they predict mortality over long periods in women and men. Design: Prospective cohort study.Setting: Participants were employees of the General Post Office.Methods: Risk factor data were collected via clinical examination and questionnaire, 1966-7. Associations between cardiorespiratory risk factors and 40-year mortality were determined for 644 women and 1272 men aged 35-70 at examination.Main outcome measures: All-cause, cardiovascular (CVD), cancer and respiratory mortality.Results: Associations between systolic blood pressure and all-cause and stroke mortality were equally strong for women and men, hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.25 (1.1 to 1.4) and 1.18 (1.1 to 1.3); and 2.17 (1.7 to 2.8) and 1.69 (1.4 to 2.1), respectively. Cholesterol was higher in women and was associated with all-cause 1.22 (1.1 to 1.4) and CVD 1.39 (1.2 to 1.7) mortality, while associations between 2-hour glucose and all-cause 1.15 (1.1 to 1.2), coronary heart disease (CHD) 1.25 (1.1 to 1.4) and respiratory mortality 1.21 (1.0 to 1.5) were observed in men. Obesity was associated with stroke in women (2.42 (1.12 to 5.24)) and CHD in men (1.59 (1.02 to 2.49)), while ECG ischaemia was associated with CVD in both sexes. The strongest, most consistent predictor of mortality was smoking in women and poor lung function in men. However, evidence of sex differences in associations between the cardiorespiratory risk factors measured and mortality was sparse.Conclusions: Data from a 40-year follow-up period show remarkably persistent associations between risk factors and cardiorespiratory and all-cause mortality in women and men.

Title:Cardiorespiratory risk factors as predictors of 40-year mortality in women and men
Publisher version:http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2008.164251
UCL classification:UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Surgery and Interventional Science (Division of)
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care > Epidemiology and Public Health

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