Calcium microdomains and oxidative stress.
561 - 574.
The phenomenon of calcium microdomains is firmly established in the field of subcellular physiology. These regions of localized, transient calcium increase are exemplified by the spontaneous 'sparks' released through the ryanodine receptor in myocytes, but include subplasmalemmal microdomains, focal calcium oscillations and microdomains enclosed within organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi and mitochondria. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress regulates both the formation and disappearance of microdomains. Calcium release channels and transporters are all modulated by redox state, while several mechanisms that generate oxidative or nitrosative stress are regulated by calcium. Here, we discuss the evidence for the regulation of calcium microdomains by redox state, and, by way of example, demonstrate that the frequency of calcium sparks in cardiomyocytes is increased in response to oxidative stress. We consider the evidence for the existence of analogous microdomains of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and suggest that the refinement of imaging techniques for these species might lead to similar concepts. The interaction between Ca2+ microdomains and proteins that modulate their formation results in a complex and dynamic, spatial signaling mechanism, which is likely to be broadly applicable to different cell types, adding new dimensions to the calcium signaling 'toolkit'. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Title:||Calcium microdomains and oxidative stress|
|Keywords:||calcium, oxidative stress, ROS, MITOCHONDRIAL PERMEABILITY TRANSITION, INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE RECEPTORS, MUSCLE SARCOPLASMIC-RETICULUM, MAMMALIAN SKELETAL-MUSCLE, REACTIVE OXYGEN, NITRIC-OXIDE, NADPH OXIDASE, ATRIAL-FIBRILLATION, INTRACELLULAR CA2+, RYANODINE RECEPTOR|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Biosciences (Division of) > Cell and Developmental Biology
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
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