Rahal, M; Khor, JM; Demosthenous, A; Tizzard, A; Bayford, R; (2009) A comparison study of electrodes for neonate electrical impedance tomography. PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT , 30 (6) S73 - S84. 10.1088/0967-3334/30/6/S05.
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Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique that has the potential to be used for studying neonate lung function. The properties of the electrodes are very important in multi-frequency EIT (MFEIT) systems, particularly for neonates, as the skin cannot be abraded to reduce contact impedance. In this work, the impedance of various clinical electrodes as a function of frequency is investigated to identify the optimum electrode type for this application. Six different types of self-adhesive electrodes commonly used in general and neonatal cardiology have been investigated. These electrodes are Ag/AgCl electrodes from the AmbuR (R) Cardiology Blue sensors range (BR, NF and BRS), Kendall (KittyCat (TM) and ARBOR (R)) and Philips 13953D electrodes. In addition, a textile electrode without gel from Textronics was tested on two subjects to allow comparison with the hydrogel-based electrodes. Two-and four-electrode measurements were made to determine the electrode-interface and tissue impedances, respectively. The measurements were made on the back of the forearm of six healthy adult volunteers without skin preparation with 2.5 cm electrode spacing. Impedance measurements were carried out using a Solartron SI 1260 impedance/gain-phase analyser with a frequency range from 10 Hz to 1MHz. For the electrode-interface impedance, the average magnitude decreased with frequency, with an average value of 5 k Omega at 10 kHz and 337 Omega at 1 MHz; for the tissue impedance, the respective values were 987 Omega and 29 Omega. Overall, the Ambu BRS, Kendall ARBOR (R) and Textronics textile electrodes gave the lowest electrode contact impedance at 1 MHz. Based on the results of the two-electrode measurements, simple RC models for the Ambu BRS and Kendall-ARBO and Textronics textile electrodes have been derived for MFEIT applications.
|Title:||A comparison study of electrodes for neonate electrical impedance tomography|
|Location:||Dartmouth Coll, Dartmouth, NH|
|Keywords:||electrical impedance tomography, electrodes, impedance measurements, SKIN IMPEDANCE|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Electronic and Electrical Engineering|
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