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Comparison of a new integrated current source with the modified Howland circuit for EIT applications

Hong, HW; Rahal, M; Demosthenous, A; Bayford, RH; (2009) Comparison of a new integrated current source with the modified Howland circuit for EIT applications. PHYSIOL MEAS , 30 (10) 999 - 1007. 10.1088/0967-3334/30/10/001.

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Abstract

Multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (MF-EIT) systems require current sources that are accurate over a wide frequency range (1 MHz) and with large load impedance variations. The most commonly employed current source design in EIT systems is the modified Howland circuit (MHC). The MHC requires tight matching of resistors to achieve high output impedance and may suffer from instability over a wide frequency range in an integrated solution. In this paper, we introduce a new integrated current source design in CMOS technology and compare its performance with the MHC. The new integrated design has advantages over the MHC in terms of power consumption and area. The output current and the output impedance of both circuits were determined through simulations and measurements over the frequency range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz. For frequencies up to 1 MHz, the measured maximum variation of the output current for the integrated current source is 0.8% whereas for the MHC the corresponding value is 1.5%. Although the integrated current source has an output impedance greater than 1 M Omega up to 1 MHz in simulations, in practice, the impedance is greater than 160 k Omega up to 1 MHz due to the presence of stray capacitance.

Type:Article
Title:Comparison of a new integrated current source with the modified Howland circuit for EIT applications
DOI:10.1088/0967-3334/30/10/001
Keywords:current source, electrical impedance tomography (EIT), ELECTRICAL-IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY
UCL classification:UCL > School of BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Electronic and Electrical Engineering

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