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Intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis. A review of efficacy and safety

Riley, P; Maillard, SM; Wedderburn, LR; Woo, P; Murray, KJ; Pilkington, CA; (2004) Intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis. A review of efficacy and safety. RHEUMATOLOGY , 43 (4) 491 - 496. 10.1093/rheumatology/keh082.

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Abstract

Objectives. To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous cyclophosphamide (CYP) used in severe and refractory juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM).Methods. Retrospective case note review of the outcome of 12 patients.Results. Assessment at 6 months of therapy in 10 of the 12 patients showed a significant improvement in muscle function as assessed by the Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS) (P = 0.012), muscle strength (P = 0.008), global extramuscular disease score (P = 0.008), skin disease severity (P = 0.015) and lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.028). There were reductions in creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, prednisolone dose and ESR, but these did not reach statistical significance. Clinical improvement was maintained after CYP until the most recent follow-up (between 6 months and 7 yr) and no severe side-effects were seen. Reversible complications included lymphopenia, herpes zoster infections and alopecia. The median cumulative dose was 4.6 g/m(2) (range 3-9 g/m(2)). The available evidence suggests that, at the doses required, risks of malignancy, infertility and gonadal failure are low. Two patients with severe treatment-resistant disease died after one dose of CYP, both of whom were ventilated prior to commencement of CYP and were thought to have died as a result of their severe disease process, and too early for clinical benefit to be obtained from the drug.Conclusions. In this cohort of children with severe and refractory JDM, CYP appeared to have provided major clinical benefit with no evidence of serious toxicity in the short term.

Type:Article
Title:Intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis. A review of efficacy and safety
DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/keh082
Keywords:juvenile, dermatomyositis, cyclophosphamide, refractory, ulcerative, childhood, vasculitis, interstitial lung, gastrointestinal, SYSTEMIC-LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS, ACUTE NONLYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, TERM-FOLLOW-UP, CHILDHOOD DERMATOMYOSITIS, RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS, CYCLOSPORINE-A, INTERMITTENT, NEPHRITIS, POLYMYOSITIS, MALIGNANCY
UCL classification:UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Infection and Immunity (Division of)
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Child Health > Department of Infection and Immunity > ICH - Rheumatology Unit

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