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Human growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) and its novel homolog GDF-9B are expressed in oocytes during early folliculogenesis.

Aaltonen, J; Laitinen, MP; Vuojolainen, K; Jaatinen, R; Horelli-Kuitunen, N; Seppä, L; Louhio, H; ... Ritvos, O; + view all (1999) Human growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) and its novel homolog GDF-9B are expressed in oocytes during early folliculogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab , 84 (8) pp. 2744-2750. 10.1210/jcem.84.8.5921.

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Abstract

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) is a transforming growth factor-beta family member that is required for normal folliculogenesis in female mice, but its role as a regulator of human fertility is still unclear. We determined here by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses the localization of the GDF-9 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein during human folliculogenesis. The GDF-9 transcripts were not detected in primordial follicles, but they are abundantly expressed in primary follicles in frozen sections of ovarian cortical tissue material obtained at laparoscopic surgery. We raised antipeptide antibodies against GDF-9 and showed by immunohistochemical studies on paraffin sections of whole human ovaries that the GDF-9 protein is most abundantly expressed in primary follicles. We recently demonstrated that a novel GDF-9-related factor, GDF-9B, is coexpressed with GDF-9 during murine folliculogenesis. We now isolated human GDF-9B complementary DNA and genomic clones and report the unusually restricted expression pattern of human GDF-9B. The human GDF-9B transcript can be detected only in the gonads by RT-PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization studies indicate that it is not expressed in small primary follicles but, rather, in the oocytes of late primary follicles. Functional studies using the Xenopus laeuis embryo model indicate that unlike the transforming growth factor-beta family members activin and bone morphogenetic protein-4, neither GDF-9 nor GDF-9B affects mesoderm induction, suggesting that they may use signaling pathways distinct from those well defined for activin and bone morphogenetic protein-4. We conclude that 1) both GDF-9 mRNA and protein are abundantly expressed in oocytes of primary follicles in human ovary, suggesting that the GDF-9 transcript is translated at this early stage of folliculogenesis; 2) human GDF-9B is specifically expressed in gonads at low levels; and 3) the expression of GDF-9 mRNA begins slightly earlier than that of GDF-9B in the human oocytes during follicular development. Our results are consistent with the suggestion that GDF-9 and GDF-9B may regulate human folliculogenesis in a manner specific to the ovary.

Type: Article
Title: Human growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) and its novel homolog GDF-9B are expressed in oocytes during early folliculogenesis.
Location: United States
DOI: 10.1210/jcem.84.8.5921
Keywords: Adult, Animals, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15, Female, Growth Differentiation Factor 9, Growth Substances, Humans, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Mesoderm, Mice, Oocytes, Ovarian Follicle, RNA, Messenger, Xenopus laevis
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Cell and Developmental Biology
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1568571
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