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Enhanced Risk Aversion, But Not Loss Aversion, in Unmedicated Pathological Anxiety.

Charpentier, CJ; Aylward, J; Roiser, JP; Robinson, OJ; (2016) Enhanced Risk Aversion, But Not Loss Aversion, in Unmedicated Pathological Anxiety. Biol Psychiatry 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.12.010. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are associated with disruptions in both emotional processing and decision making. As a result, anxious individuals often make decisions that favor harm avoidance. However, this bias could be driven by enhanced aversion to uncertainty about the decision outcome (e.g., risk) or aversion to negative outcomes (e.g., loss). Distinguishing between these possibilities may provide a better cognitive understanding of anxiety disorders and hence inform treatment strategies. METHODS: To address this question, unmedicated individuals with pathological anxiety (n = 25) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 23) completed a gambling task featuring a decision between a gamble and a safe (certain) option on every trial. Choices on one type of gamble-involving weighing a potential win against a potential loss (mixed)-could be driven by both loss and risk aversion, whereas choices on the other type-featuring only wins (gain only)-were exclusively driven by risk aversion. By fitting a computational prospect theory model to participants' choices, we were able to reliably estimate risk and loss aversion and their respective contribution to gambling decisions. RESULTS: Relative to healthy control subjects, pathologically anxious participants exhibited enhanced risk aversion but equivalent levels of loss aversion. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with pathological anxiety demonstrate clear avoidance biases in their decision making. These findings suggest that this may be driven by a reduced propensity to take risks rather than a stronger aversion to losses. This important clarification suggests that psychological interventions for anxiety should focus on reducing risk sensitivity rather than reducing sensitivity to negative outcomes per se.

Type: Article
Title: Enhanced Risk Aversion, But Not Loss Aversion, in Unmedicated Pathological Anxiety.
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.12.010
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.12.010
Language: English
Additional information: © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords: Anxiety, Decision making, Emotion, Loss aversion, Memory, Risk aversion
UCL classification: UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Psychology and Language Sciences (Division of) > Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1540347
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