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Characterization of bespoke force sensors for tailored applications

Morgado Ramirez, D; Garcia Souto, MDP; Oldfray, B; Smitham, P; Miodownik, M; Holloway, C; (2017) Characterization of bespoke force sensors for tailored applications. IEEE Sensors Journal , 17 (6) pp. 1727-1734. 10.1109/JSEN.2016.2644378. Green open access

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Abstract

Bespoke force sensors made with active polymer composites are inexpensive, thin and flexible, hence popular in wearable electronics, however their wider application is limited due to the lack of literature studying their voltage response related errors. We present the voltage response characterization of bespoke force sensors made with an active polymer composite, silver coated fabric, stainless steel thread and silver epoxy. Characterization of the effects of static and dynamic loading was completed with a mechanical testing machine. Static tests consisted of loading and unloading at 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 N/s, and drift tests for 120 minutes up to 10 N every 1 N. Dynamic tests consisted of a sinusoidal load of 5 N ± 1 N applied at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 Hz for 60 minutes. The force-voltage relationships were modelled using an exponential function. Maximum mean drift error was observed when applying different static loads for 120 minutes each. Drift error is minimal at 5 s (<1%)and at 60 (< 5%) minutes with loads under 1 N. Maximum hysteresis of 18% was observed at a 1 N/s loading rate. The maximum drift error after one hour of dynamic loading was observed at 0.5 Hz and is minimal (-0.00004%). The cost of fabricating these sensors is very low compared with commercially available options. These sensors can be fabricated in any shape and size with the added advantage of being able to set the location of the electronic connections as desired.

Type: Article
Title: Characterization of bespoke force sensors for tailored applications
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2016.2644378
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2016.2644378
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author(s). All rights reserved. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. For more information, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Keywords: Hysteresis, Loading, Force sensors, Force, Sensor phenomena and characterization, Fabrics, Conductive materials testing, Instrumentation, Transducers, Wearable sensors
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Targeted Intervention
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Computer Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Mechanical Engineering
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Med Phys and Biomedical Eng
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1536081
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