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Novel optical ultrasound probes for minimally invasive surgery

Colchester, RJ; (2016) Novel optical ultrasound probes for minimally invasive surgery. Doctoral thesis, UCL (University College London).

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Abstract

Ultrasound has been used for diagnostic medicine since the mid 1950s. Since its inception ultrasound imaging has progressed and improved; with innovations including Doppler ultrasound and 3D ultrasound imaging. Recently, ultrasound probes for guidance and imaging during interventional surgery have been developed. However, traditional piezoelectric ultrasound is not well suited to high frequency, highly miniaturised applications due difficulties in dicing, connectorising and maintaining device performance on small scales. All-optical ultrasound is emerging as an alternative and is well suited for miniaturisation and enables the generation of high frequency, broadband ultrasound. Ultrasound is generated via the photoacoustic effect and received using interferometric techniques. This work was towards fabricating miniature all-optical ultrasound devices that could be used in the context of minimally invasive procedures. Novel optical fibre ultrasound transmitters were fabricated using a carbon nanotube and polydimethylsiloxane composite coating on optical fibre tips. Coatings exhibited high absorbance and have been used to generate ultrasound with peak-to-peak pressure in excess of 4 MPa. Using these transmitters an all-optical ultrasound probe was fabricated using a Fabry-Pérot hydrophone for reception. As a proof of concept swine vascular tissue was and demonstrated good correspondence with histology. In addition, the device was integrated into a needle for real-time imaging in vivo, which produced the first all-optical ultrasound images acquired in a clinically relevant manner. Further, the device was extended to allow vessel wall imaging perpendicular to the fibre optic axis and gold nanocomposite ultrasound transmitters were fabricated to enable dual modality ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging. This work represented a significant development in all-optical ultrasound imaging, moving it from a bench top system to a clinical device.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Title: Novel optical ultrasound probes for minimally invasive surgery
Event: University College London
Language: English
Keywords: Ultrasound, Photoacoustics, Laser-generated Ultrasound, Nanocomposite, Optical Fibre, Medical Imaging
UCL classification: UCL > School of BEAMS
UCL > School of BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1532779
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