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The influence of social factors on gender health

Aboulghar, M; Albertini, DF; Allen, JF; Bhattacharya, S; Cottingham Terralis C, J; Evers, JLH; Geraedts, JPM; ... Volpe, A; + view all (2016) The influence of social factors on gender health. Human Reproduction , 31 (8) pp. 1631-1637. 10.1093/humrep/dew154. Green open access

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Abstract

Male births exceed female births by 5–6% (for a sex ratio at birth of 1.05–1.06) while a women's life expectancy, on a global scale, is about 6 years longer. Thus within various age groups the male:female ratio changes over time. Until age 50 years men outnumber women; thereafter their numbers show a sharp decline. Consequently at age 80 years, there are many more women than men. An estimated 25% of this male excess mortality is due to biological causes, the rest being explained by behavioural, cultural and environmental factors. For both women and men, the main health risks related to lifestyle are smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the year 2010, overweight (BMI: 25–29 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI: >30 kg/m2) were responsible for over 3 million deaths, with similar relative risks in men and women for overweight and obesity. Smoking and alcohol are the major causes of the global gender gap in mortality. For women in some parts of the world however pregnancy is also hazardous. On a global scale, in 2013 about 300 000 deaths were related to pregnancy, with sub-Saharan Africa registering the highest maternal mortality: over 500 maternal deaths per 100 000 births. Additional woman's health risks arise from gender discrimination, including sex-selective abortion, violence against women and early child marriage. Providers should be aware of the effect that these risks can have on both reproductive and general health.

Type: Article
Title: The influence of social factors on gender health
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/humrep/dew154
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dew154
Language: English
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Reproductive Biology, Health, Life Expectancy, Gender, Lifestyle, Sex Selective Abortion, Early And Child Marriage, Violence Against Women, Coronary-Heart-Disease, Risk-Factor, Life Expectancy, Excess Mortality, 64 Cohorts, Women, Metaanalysis, Sex, Men, Individuals
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Genetics, Evolution and Environment
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1529211
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