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Effect of different alcohols on stratum corneum kallikrein 5 and phospholipase A2 together with epidermal keratinocytes and skin irritation

Cartner, T; Brand, N; Tian, K; Saud, A; Carr, T; Stapleton, P; Lane, ME; (2016) Effect of different alcohols on stratum corneum kallikrein 5 and phospholipase A2 together with epidermal keratinocytes and skin irritation. International Journal of Cosmetic Science , 39 (2) pp. 188-196. 10.1111/ics.12364. Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the effect of ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol on stratum corneum (SC) enzymes and keratinocytes in vitro together with their effects on skin condition and function. METHODS: Activities of kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) as well as keratinocyte metabolic activity, interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured in vitro in the presence and absence of the different alcohols. We also measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, visual dryness and visual redness on the volar forearms of 25 Caucasian women following application of the alcohols 20 and 100 times per day over a period of 14 days in a clinical study. RESULTS: Reduced activities of KLK5 and PLA2 were observed in the presence of the alcohols. The greatest denaturing effect was always observed for n-propanol (P < 0.001), and in the case of PLA2, the effect of isopropanol was greater than ethanol (P < 0.001). Equally, ethanol had the mildest effects on keratinocyte metabolic activity and cytokine secretion (P < 0.001) and n-propanol always produced the most severe changes in normal and differentiated keratinocytes. These in vitro findings supported the clinical results where the major effects were on the induction of skin irritation (increased dropout rates) and ranked the intolerance of the different alcohols as follows: n-propanol > isopropanol > ethanol. At the high application frequencies, the effect of the different alcohols on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance was similar, but at the low application frequencies, n-propanol had a significant effect on TEWL and capacitance values (P < 0.05). Equally, n-propanol and isopropanol produced significantly more skin redness at the low application frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: Clearly, isopropanol and n-propanol caused significant SC and keratinocyte perturbation in vitro together with damage to skin condition and function in vivo whereas ethanol did not. As a result, we show that ethanol-based sanitizers are better tolerated by skin, particularly in high-use settings, than other alcohols and should be the active ingredient of choice.

Type: Article
Title: Effect of different alcohols on stratum corneum kallikrein 5 and phospholipase A2 together with epidermal keratinocytes and skin irritation
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/ics.12364
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1111/ics.12364
Language: English
Additional information: © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Cosmetic Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Cosmetic Scientists and Société Française de Cosmétologie. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Keywords: Alcohol, cell culture, formulation/stability, skin barrier, stratum corneum
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Pharmaceutics
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > SoP Pharmaceutical and Bio Chemistry
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1514606
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