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Gynecologic Cancers: Emerging Novel Strategies for Targeting DNA Repair Deficiency

Kristeleit, RS; Miller, RE; Kohn, EC; (2016) Gynecologic Cancers: Emerging Novel Strategies for Targeting DNA Repair Deficiency. American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book , 2016 10.14694/EDBK_159086. Green open access

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Abstract

The presence of a BRCA mutation, somatic or germline, is now established as a standard of care for selecting patients with ovarian cancer for treatment with a PARP inhibitor. During the clinical development of the PARP inhibitor class of agents, a subset of women without BRCA mutations were shown to respond to these drugs (termed “BRCAness”). It was hypothesized that other genetic abnormalities causing a homologous recombinant deficiency (HRD) were sensitizing the BRCA wild-type cancers to PARP inhibition. The molecular basis for these other causes of HRD are being defined. They include individual gene defects (e.g., RAD51 mutation, CHEK2 mutation), homozygous somatic loss, and whole genome properties such as genomic scarring. Testing this knowledge is possible when selecting patients to receive molecular therapy targeting DNA repair, not only for patients with ovarian cancer but also endometrial and cervical cancers. The validity of HRD assays and multiple gene sequencing panels to select a broader population of patients for treatment with PARP inhibitor therapy is under evaluation. Other non-HRD targets for exploiting DNA repair defects in gynecologic cancers include mismatch repair (MMR), checkpoint signaling, and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair. This article describes recent evidence supporting strategies in addition to BRCA mutation for selecting patients for treatment with PARP inhibitor therapy. Additionally, the challenges and opportunities of exploiting DNA repair pathways other than homologous recombination for molecular therapy in gynecologic cancers is discussed.

Type: Article
Title: Gynecologic Cancers: Emerging Novel Strategies for Targeting DNA Repair Deficiency
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.14694/EDBK_159086
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.14694/EDBK_159086
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the version of record. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute > Research Department of Oncology
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1499994
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