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Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection - A practical therapeutic approach

Breen, RAM; Swaden, L; Ballinger, J; Lipman, MCI; (2006) Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection - A practical therapeutic approach. DRUGS , 66 (18) 2299 - 2308.

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Abstract

HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are leading global causes of mortality and morbidity, and yet effective treatment exists for both conditions. Rifamycin-based anti-tuberculosis therapy can cure HIV-related TB and, where available, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the incidence of AIDS and death. Optimal treatment regimens for HIV/TB co-infection are not yet clearly defined. Combinations are limited by alterations in the activity of the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system, which in particular may produce subtherapeutic plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs. For example, protease inhibitors often must be avoided if the potent CYP inducer rifampicin is co-administered. However, an alternative rifamycin, rifabutin, which has similar efficacy to rifampicin, can be used with appropriate dose reduction. Available clinical data suggest that, for the majority of individuals, rifampicin-based regimens can be successfully combined with the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors nevirapine and efavirenz. Most available HAART regimens in areas that have a high burden of TB contain one or the other of these drugs as a backbone. However, significant questions remain as to the optimal dose of either agent required to ensure therapeutic plasma concentrations, especially in relation to particular ethnic groups. The timing of HAART initiation after starting anti-tuberculosis therapy continues to be controversial. Debate centres upon whether early initiation of HAART increases the risk of paradoxical reactions (immune reconstitution-related events) and other adverse events, or whether delay greatly elevates the risk of disease progression. Further prospective clinical data are needed to help inform practice in this area.

Type: Article
Title: Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection - A practical therapeutic approach
Keywords: ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY, HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS, DIAGNOSED PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS, INFECTED PATIENTS, PHARMACOKINETIC INTERACTIONS, MYCOBACTERIUM-TUBERCULOSIS, PARADOXICAL REACTIONS, 24-WEEK EFFICACY, RIFAMPICIN, EFAVIRENZ
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Respiratory Medicine
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/147890
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