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Designing for experience - a requirements framework for enrolment based and public facing e-government services

Porter, C; (2015) Designing for experience - a requirements framework for enrolment based and public facing e-government services. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

User-centricity is a pre-requisite for a truly transformational e-government strategy. This goes beyond visual design and appeal, and ties down to a rudimentary measure of how far people are willing to go to enrol for and use e-government services. Enrolment can have a serious impact on the success of online government services. Different services require different levels of identity assurance, and different enrolment processes are put in place to deliver them. But from the citizen's perspective these processes often require a disproportionate amount of effort, producing hurdles that affect user acceptance and ultimately service adoption. When enrolling to high-effort services is not mandatory, take-up is low; when it is compulsory, it causes resentment, and neither is desirable. Despite existing work on the impact of security and identity processes on end users there has been little work on how these contributions could be operationalised and adopted by practitioners and policy makers as part of the requirements development process. Research in HCI provides techniques to help practitioners design systems that are within general human capabilities, however such techniques are too generic to approximate use-time behaviour across user groups and within different contexts of use. This thesis proposes Calibrated Personas, a user modelling technique that accumulates knowledge on user behaviour to model and fine-tune tolerance levels for workload and its impact on e-government service adoption (1) across user groups, (2) e-service types and (3) contexts of use. A user group calibration protocol was devised to facilitate data collection and model generation for user behaviour in enrolment-specific use cases. These models are in turn used to approximate user reactions towards design alternatives, reducing the gap between design-time knowledge (upon which decisions are made) and use-time knowledge. To facilitate this activity this work presents Sentire ('to listen'), a requirements and design framework that combines industry-strength practices with user feedback simulations (referred to as UX-analytics). These simulations in turn inform the requirements development process with actionable feedback as part of an iterative design process. This thesis considers tool support for Sentire as central to the investigation in order to facilitate adoption by practitioners and to encourage knowledge sharing and re-use within the e-government domain. For this reason, an online collaborative computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tool was developed and evaluated throughout the various real-world interventions carried out for this thesis. Sentire was applied to two new national e-services and also in the evaluation of an existing one. User-studies and expert evaluation were instrumental to the evolution and validation of the main contributions and deliverables arising from this thesis.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Title: Designing for experience - a requirements framework for enrolment based and public facing e-government services
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
UCL classification: UCL > School of BEAMS
UCL > School of BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1469323
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