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Face recognition in uncontrolled environments

Fu, Y; (2015) Face recognition in uncontrolled environments. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Yun Fu's UCL PhD thesis.pdf
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Abstract

This thesis concerns face recognition in uncontrolled environments in which the images used for training and test are collected from the real world instead of laboratories. Compared with controlled environments, images from uncontrolled environments contain more variation in pose, lighting, expression, occlusion, background, image quality, scale, and makeup. Therefore, face recognition in uncontrolled environments is much more challenging than in controlled conditions. Moreover, many real world applications require good recognition performance in uncontrolled environments. Example applications include social networking, human-computer interaction and electronic entertainment. Therefore, researchers and companies have shifted their interest from controlled environments to uncontrolled environments over the past seven years. In this thesis, we divide the history of face recognition into four stages and list the main problems and algorithms at each stage. We find that face recognition in unconstrained environments is still an unsolved problem although many face recognition algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. Existing approaches have two major limitations. First, many methods do not perform well when tested in uncontrolled databases even when all the faces are close to frontal. Second, most current algorithms cannot handle large pose variation, which has become a bottleneck for improving performance. In this thesis, we investigate Bayesian models for face recognition. Our contributions extend Probabilistic Linear Discriminant Analysis (PLDA) [Prince and Elder 2007]. In PLDA, images are described as a sum of signal and noise components. Each component is a weighted combination of basis functions. We firstly investigate the effect of degree of the localization of these basis functions and find better performance is obtained when the signal is treated more locally and the noise more globally. We call this new algorithm multi-scale PLDA and our experiments show it can handle lighting variation better than PLDA but fails for pose variation. We then analyze three existing Bayesian face recognition algorithms and combine the advantages of PLDA and the Joint Bayesian Face algorithm [Chen et al. 2012] to propose Joint PLDA. We find that our new algorithm improves performance compared to existing Bayesian face recognition algorithms. Finally, we propose Tied Joint Bayesian Face algorithm and Tied Joint PLDA to address large pose variations in the data, which drastically decreases performance in most existing face recognition algorithms. To provide sufficient training images with large pose difference, we introduce a new database called the UCL Multi-pose database. We demonstrate that our Bayesian models improve face recognition performance when the pose of the face images varies.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Title: Face recognition in uncontrolled environments
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1468901
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