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Imaging of epileptic activity using EEG-correlated functional MRI.

Krakow, K.; (2005) Imaging of epileptic activity using EEG-correlated functional MRI. Doctoral thesis , University of London. Green open access

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Abstract

This thesis describes the method of EEG-correlated fMRI and its application to patients with epilepsy. First, an introduction on MRI and functional imaging methods in the field of epilepsy is provided. Then, the present and future role of EEG-correlated fMRI in the investigation of the epilepsies is discussed. The fourth chapter reviews the important practicalities of EEG-correlated fMRI that were addressed in this project. These included patient safety, EEG quality and MRI artifacts during EEG-correlated fMRI. Technical solutions to enable safe, good quality EEG recordings inside the MR scanner are presented, including optimisation of the EEG recording techniques and algorithms for the on-line subtraction of pulse and image artifact. In chapter five, a study applying spike-triggered fMRI to patients with focal epilepsy (n = 24) is presented. Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), cortical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) activations corresponding to the presumed generators of the interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) were identified in twelve patients. The results were reproducible in repeated experiments in eight patients. In the remaining patients no significant activation (n = 10) was present or the activation did not correspond to the presumed epileptic focus (n = 2). The clinical implications of this finding are discussed. In a second study it was demonstrated that in selected patients, individual (as opposed to averaged) IED could also be associated with hemodynamic changes detectable with fMRI. Chapter six gives examples of combination of EEG-correlated fMRI with other modalities to obtain complementary information on interictal epileptiform activity and epileptic foci. One study compared spike-triggered fMRI activation maps with EEG source analysis based on 64-channel scalp EEG recordings of interictal spikes using co-registration of both modalities. In all but one patient, source analysis solutions were anatomically concordant with the BOLD activation. Further, the combination of spike- triggered fMRI with diffusion tensor and chemical shift imaging is demonstrated in a patient with localisation-related epilepsy. In chapter seven, applications of EEG-correlated fMRI in different areas of neuroscience are discussed. Finally, the initial imaging findings with the novel technique for the simultaneous and continuous acquisition of fMRI and EEG data are presented as an outlook to future applications of EEG-correlated fMRI. In conclusion, the technical problems of both EEG-triggered fMRI and simultaneous EEG-correlated fMRI are now largely solved. The method has proved useful to provide new insights into the generation of epileptiform activity and other pathological and physiological brain activity. Currently, its utility in clinical epileptology remains unknown.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Title: Imaging of epileptic activity using EEG-correlated functional MRI.
Identifier: PQ ETD:592216
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Thesis digitised by ProQuest
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1444906
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