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Appetitive and aversive olfactory learning in humans studied using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging

Gottfried, JA; O'Doherty, J; Dolan, RJ; (2002) Appetitive and aversive olfactory learning in humans studied using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. J NEUROSCI , 22 (24) 10829 - 10837.

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Abstract

We combined event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with olfactory classical conditioning to differentiate the neural responses evoked during appetitive and aversive olfactory learning. Three neutral faces (the conditioned stimuli (CS+)] were repetitively paired with pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant odors [the unconditioned stimuli (UCS)] in a partial reinforcement schedule. A fourth face was never paired to odor [the nonconditioned stimulus (CS-)]. Learning-related neural activity, comparing unpaired (face only) CS+ stimuli with CS-, showed valence-independent activations in rostral and caudal orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Medial OFC responded to the appetitive (app) CS+, whereas lateral OFC responded to the aversive (av) CS+. Within nucleus accumbens, neural responses showed divergent activation profiles that increased with time in response to the appCS+ but decreased in response to the avCS+. In posterior amygdala, responses were elicited by the appCS+, which habituated over time. In temporal piriform cortex, neural responses were evoked by the avCS+, which progressively increased with time. These results highlight regional and temporal dissociations during olfactory learning and imply that emotionally salient odors can engender cross-modal associative learning. Moreover, the findings suggest that the role of human primary (piriform) and secondary olfactory cortices transcends their function as mere intermediaries of chemosensory information processing.

Type: Article
Title: Appetitive and aversive olfactory learning in humans studied using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging
Keywords: olfaction, odor, emotion, conditioning, associative learning, neuroimaging, fMRI, orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, piriform cortex, HUMAN ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX, MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX, BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA, NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS, DOPAMINE RELEASE, PIRIFORM CORTEX, REWARD, ACTIVATION, RESPONSES, NEURONS
UCL classification: UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Neurology
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Neurology > Imaging Neuroscience
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/143868
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