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Evidence-based recommendations for PISA measurements in mitral regurgitation: Systematic review, clinical and in-vitro study

(2013) Evidence-based recommendations for PISA measurements in mitral regurgitation: Systematic review, clinical and in-vitro study. International Journal of Cardiology , 168 (2) pp. 1220-1228. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.11.059.

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Abstract

Background: Guidelines for quantifying mitral regurgitation (MR) using "proximal isovelocity surface area" (PISA) instruct operators to me a sure the PISA radius from valve orifice to Doppler flow convergence "hemisphere". Using clinical data and a physically-constructed MR model we (A) analyse the actually-observed colour Doppler PISA shape and (B) test whether instructions to measure a "hemisphere" are helpful. Methods and results: In part A, the true shape of PISA shells was investigated using three separate approaches. First, a systematic review of published examples consistently showed non-hemispherical, "urchinoid" shapes. Second, our clinical data confirmed that the Doppler-visualized surface is non-hemispherical. Third, in-vitro experiments showed that round orifices never produce a colour Doppler hemisphere. In part B, six observers were instructed to measure hemisphere radius rh and (on a second viewing) urchinoid distance (du) in 11 clinical PISA datasets; 6 established experts also measured PISA distance as the gold standard. rh measurements, generated using the hemisphere instruction significantly underestimated expert values (-28%, p<0.0005), meaning rh 2 was underestimated by approximately 2-fold. du measurements, generated using the non-hemisphere instruction were less biased (+7%, p=0.03). Finally, frame-to-frame variability in PISA distance was found to have a coefficient of variation (CV) of 25% in patients and 9% in in-vitro data. Beat-to-beat variability had a CV of 15% in patients. Conclusions: Doppler-visualized PISA shells are not hemispherical: we should avoid advising observers to measure a hemispherical radius because it encourages underestimation of orifice area by approximately two-fold. If precision is needed (e.g. to detect changes reliably) multi-frame averaging is essential. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Type: Article
Title: Evidence-based recommendations for PISA measurements in mitral regurgitation: Systematic review, clinical and in-vitro study
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.11.059
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1431954
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