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CHARACTERISTICS OF DISSOCIABLE HUMAN LEARNING-SYSTEMS

SHANKS, DR; STJOHN, MF; (1994) CHARACTERISTICS OF DISSOCIABLE HUMAN LEARNING-SYSTEMS. BEHAV BRAIN SCI , 17 (3) 367 - 395. 10.1017/S0140525X00035032. Green open access

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Abstract

A number of ways of taxonomizing human learning have ben proposed. We examine the evidence for one such proposal, namely, that there exist independent explicit and implicit learning systems. This combines two further distinctions, (1) between learning that takes place with versus without concurrent awareness, and (2) between learning that involves the encoding of instances (or fragments) versus the induction of abstract rules or hypotheses. Implicit learning is assumed to involve unconscious rule learning. We examine the evidence for implicit learning derived from subliminal learning, conditioning, artificial grammar learning, instrumental learning, and reaction times in sequence learning. We conclude that unconscious learning has not been satisfactorily established in any of these areas. The assumption that learning in some of theses tasks (e.g., artificial grammar learning) is predominantly based on rule abstraction is questionable. When subjects cannot report the ''implicitly learned'' rules that govern stimulus selection, this is often because their knowledge consists of instances or fragments of the training stimuli rather than rules. In contrast to the distinction between conscious and unconscious learning, the distinction between instance and rule learning is a sound and meaningful way of taxonomizing human learning. We discuss various computational models of these two forms of learning.

Type: Article
Title: CHARACTERISTICS OF DISSOCIABLE HUMAN LEARNING-SYSTEMS
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X00035032
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00035032
Language: English
Additional information: © 1994 Cambridge University Press
Keywords: ARTIFICIAL GRAMMAR, CATEGORIZATION, CONNECTIONISM, CONSCIOUSNESS, EXPLICIT IMPLICIT PROCESSES, INSTANCES, LEARNING, MEMORY, RULES, COMPLEX PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE, SKIN-CONDUCTANCE RESPONSES, RULE-GOVERNED BEHAVIOR, IMPLICIT MEMORY, CONTINGENCY AWARENESS, EXPLICIT MEMORY, VERBALIZABLE KNOWLEDGE, UNCONSCIOUS PERCEPTION, ARTIFICIAL GRAMMARS, TASK-PERFORMANCE
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences > Experimental Psychology
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/142639
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