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High performance cellulose nanocomposites: comparing the reinforcing ability of bacterial cellulose and nanofibrillated cellulose

Lee, KY; Tammelin, T; Schulfter, K; Kiiskinen, H; Samela, J; Bismarck, A; (2012) High performance cellulose nanocomposites: comparing the reinforcing ability of bacterial cellulose and nanofibrillated cellulose. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces , 4 (8) 4078 - 4086. 10.1021/am300852a. Green open access

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Abstract

This work investigates the surface and bulk properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and bacterial cellulose (BC), as well as their reinforcing ability in polymer nanocomposites. BC possesses higher critical surface tension of 57 mN m(-1) compared to NFC (41 mN m(-1)). The thermal degradation temperature in both nitrogen and air atmosphere of BC was also found to be higher than that of NFC. These results are in good agreement with the higher crystallinity of BC as determined by XRD, measured to be 71% for BC as compared to NFC of 41%. Nanocellulose papers were prepared from BC and NFC. Both papers possessed similar tensile moduli and strengths of 12 GPa and 110 MPa, respectively. Nanocomposites were manufactured by impregnating the nanocellulose paper with an epoxy resin using vacuum assisted resin infusion. The cellulose reinforced epoxy nanocomposites had a stiffness and strength of approximately ∼8 GPa and ∼100 MPa at an equivalent fiber volume fraction of 60 vol.-%. In terms of the reinforcing ability of NFC and BC in a polymer matrix, no significant difference between NFC and BC was observed.

Type: Article
Title: High performance cellulose nanocomposites: comparing the reinforcing ability of bacterial cellulose and nanofibrillated cellulose
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1021/am300852a
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am300852a
Language: English
Additional information: This is the author's accepted manuscript.
Keywords: Bacteria, Cellulose, Crystallization, Materials Testing, Microscopy, Electron, Scanning, Nanocomposites, Nanofibers, Nanotechnology, Nitrogen, Polymers, Pressure, Stress, Mechanical, Temperature, Tensile Strength, Time Factors, X-Ray Diffraction
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Chemical Engineering
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1407432
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