Desmedt, Y; Wang, YG; (2004) Analyzing vulnerabilities of critical infrastructures using flows and critical vertices in and/or graphs. In: **INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE.** (pp. 107 - 125). WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD

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## Abstract

AND/OR graphs and minimum-cost solution graphs have been studied extensively in artificial intelligence (see, e.g., Nilsson [14]). Generally, the AND/OR graphs are used to model problem solving processes. The minimum-cost solution graph can be used to attack the problem with the least resource. However, in many cases we want to solve the problem within the shortest time period and we assume that we have as many concurrent resources as we need to run all concurrent processes. In this paper, we will study this problem and present an algorithm for finding the minimum-time-cost solution graph in an AND/OR graph. We will also study the following problems which often appear in industry when using AND/OR graphs to model manufacturing processes or to model problem solving processes: finding maximum (additive and non-additive) flows and critical vertices in an AND/OR graph. A detailed study of these problems provide insight into the vulnerability of complex systems such as cyber-infrastructures and energy infrastructures (these infrastructures could be modeled with AND/OR graphs). For an infrastructure modeled by an AND/OR graph, the protection of critical vertices should have highest priority since terrorists could defeat the whole infrastructure with the least effort by destroying these critical points. Though there are well known polynomial time algorithms for the corresponding problems in the traditional graph theory, we will show that generally it is NP-hard to find a non-additive maximum flow in an AND/OR graph, and it is both NP-hard and coNP-hard to find a set of critical vertices in an AND/OR graph. We will also present a polynomial time algorithm for finding a maximum additive flow in an AND/OR graph, and discuss the relative complexity of these problems.

Type: | Proceedings paper |
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Title: | Analyzing vulnerabilities of critical infrastructures using flows and critical vertices in and/or graphs |

Event: | 8th Annual International Conference on Computing and Combinatorics |

Location: | SINGAPORE |

Dates: | 2002-08-15 - 2002-08-17 |

Keywords: | AND/OR graphs, vulnerability, critical certices, flows, HEURISTIC-SEARCH, ALGORITHM |

UCL classification: | UCL > School of BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Computer Science |

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