Walker, MC; Howard, RS; Smith, SJ; Miller, DH; Shorvon, SD; Hirsch, NP; (1996) Diagnosis and treatment of status epilepticus on a neurological intensive care unit. QJM-INT J MED , 89 (12) 913 - 920.
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Status epilepticus refractory to first-line therapy is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Correct diagnosis and adequate treatment of this condition require electrographic monitoring and anaesthetic facilities available in specialist intensive care units (ICUs) We carried out an audit of 26 patients admitted to a neurological ICU with a diagnosis of status epilepticus, to identify deficiencies in diagnosis and management prior to transfer to the ICU, and examine the effectiveness of ICU management. On transfer, only 14 (54%) were in status epilepticus; six were in drug-induced coma or were encephalopathic, and six had pseudostatus epilepticus, of whom four had been intubated. The commonest treatments prior to transfer were benzodiazepines, chlormethiazole and phenytoin; the loading dose of phenytoin was inadequate in at least 7/16 cases. All those in status epilepticus on transfer had their seizures successfully controlled, but ten required general anaesthesia with thiopentone, propofol, ketamine or midazolam. Two died-one had a severe encephalitis and the other had had a cardiac arrest prior to treatment. This study highlights deficiencies in the initial diagnosis and management of status epilepticus, the role of specialist neurological intensive care, and the importance of early referral.
|Title:||Diagnosis and treatment of status epilepticus on a neurological intensive care unit|
|Keywords:||REFRACTORY STATUS EPILEPTICUS, CONVULSIVE STATUS EPILEPTICUS, INFUSION, PROPOFOL, PHENYTOIN, MIDAZOLAM, SEIZURES, EEG|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy|
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Neurology > IoN - Neuroinflammation
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