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beta2-Microglobulin is potentially neurotoxic, but the blood brain barrier is likely to protect the brain from its toxicity.

Giorgetti, S; Raimondi, S; Cassinelli, S; Bucciantini, M; Stefani, M; Gregorini, G; Albonico, G; ... Bellotti, V; + view all (2009) beta2-Microglobulin is potentially neurotoxic, but the blood brain barrier is likely to protect the brain from its toxicity. Nephrol Dial Transplant , 24 (4) pp. 1176-1181. 10.1093/ndt/gfn623.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: In dialysis-related amyloidosis, beta2-microglobulin accumulates as amyloid fibrils preferentially around bones and tendons provoking osteoarthritis. In addition to the pathologic role played by the amyloid fibrils, it can be speculated that a pathogenic role is also played by the high concentrations of soluble beta2-microglobulin because it is toxic for certain cell lines like HL60 and mitogen for other cells such as the osteoclasts. The discovery that beta2-microglobulin can influence the biology of certain cells may lead to the assumption that it might affect neuronal cells that are quite sensitive to amyloidogenic proteins in the oligomeric state. Such a concern might be supported by clinical evidence that haemodialysis is associated with the risk of a cognitive impairment. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of beta2-microglobulin on the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells was assayed by the MTT test. The beta2-microglobulin concentration was determined in the cerebrospinal fluid of four different patients by means of immunonephelometry and western blot. RESULTS: Oligomeric beta2-microglobulin is cytotoxic for the SH-SY5Y cells at a concentration that can be easily reached in the plasma of patients on haemodialysis. However, the beta2-microglobulin concentration, measured in the cerebrospinal fluid of a haemodialysis patient, appears to be independent of its plasma concentration and is maintained under the lower limit of cytotoxicity we have determined in the cell culture. CONCLUSIONS: Although beta2-microglobulin is potentially neurotoxic, it is unlikely that this protein plays a role in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment observed in haemodialysis patients due to the protective effect of the blood brain barrier that maintains a low concentration of beta2-microglobulin in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Type: Article
Title: beta2-Microglobulin is potentially neurotoxic, but the blood brain barrier is likely to protect the brain from its toxicity.
Location: England
DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfn623
Keywords: Blood-Brain Barrier, Brain, Cell Line, Tumor, Cognition Disorders, Humans, Neuroblastoma, Renal Dialysis, beta 2-Microglobulin
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1356536
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