ATP, glia and central respiratory control.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
305 - 311.
An increase in PCO(2) in the arterial blood triggers immediate release of ATP from the ventral chemosensory site(s) on the surface of the medulla oblongata. Systemic hypoxia in anesthetized rats was also associated with increased ATP release on the ventral medullary surface. During both hypoxia and hypercapnia, ATP and possibly other gliotransmitters released in the ventral medulla seemed to enhance cardiorespiratory responses to these stressors, and some of this ATP was proposed to be derived from astrocytes. Astrocytes also play a vital role controlling local blood flow. Astrocytes are activated by neurotransmitter release - especially glutamate and ATP. The astrocytic activation is manifest as a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) that is closely coupled to the metabolic activity of neurons in the active area. The activation of astrocytes spreads as a wave from astrocyte to astrocyte and causes release of ATP, adenosine, and other gliotransmitters that may alter neuronal function in the region of astrocytic activation. In addition, ATP, adenosine and other vasoactive substances, when released at the endfeet of astrocytes, interact with vascular receptors that may either dilate or constrict the vessels in the region closely adjacent to the site of neuronal activity. Thus, astrocytes seem to integrate neuronal metabolic needs by responding to the level of neuronal activity to regulate local blood flow and cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia to match substrate need (oxygen and glucose) with substrate availability and with the removal of CO(2). In so doing, astrocytes assume a larger role in information processing and in the regulation of neuronal activity and homeostasis of the entire organism than has been ascribed to them in the past.
|Title:||ATP, glia and central respiratory control.|
|Keywords:||Adenosine Triphosphate, Animals, Carbon Dioxide, Cerebrovascular Circulation, Chemoreceptor Cells, Humans, Medulla Oblongata, Neuroglia, Neurons, Respiratory Physiological Processes|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Biosciences (Division of) > Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology|
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