Braun, DE; Tocher, DA; Price, SL; Griesser, UJ; (2012) The complexity of hydration of phloroglucinol: a comprehensive structural and thermodynamic characterization. J Phys Chem B , 116 (13) 3961 - 3972. 10.1021/jp211948q.
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Hydrate formation is of great importance as the inclusion of water molecules affects many solid state properties and hence determines the required chemical processing, handling, and storage. Phloroglucinol is industrially important, and the observed differences in the morphology and diffuse scattering effects with growth conditions have been scientifically controversial. We have studied the anhydrate and dihydrate of phloroglucinol and their transformations by a unique combination of complementary experimental and computational techniques, namely, moisture sorption analysis, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, isothermal calorimetry, single crystal and powder X-ray diffractometry, and crystal energy landscape calculations. The enthalpically stable dihydrate phase is unstable below 16% relative humidity (25 °C) and above 50 °C (ambient humidity), and the kinetics of hydration/dehydration are relatively rapid with a small hysteresis. A consistent atomistic picture of the thermodynamics of the hydrate/anhydrate transition was derived, consistent with the disordered single X-ray crystal structure and crystal energy landscape showing closely related low energy hydrate structures. These structures provide models for proton disorder and show stacking faults as intergrowth of different layers are possible. This indicates that the consequent variability in crystal surface features and diffuse scattering with growth conditions is not a practical concern.
|Title:||The complexity of hydration of phloroglucinol: a comprehensive structural and thermodynamic characterization.|
|Additional information:||PMCID: PMC3320094|
|Keywords:||Adsorption, Crystallography, X-Ray, Humidity, Models, Molecular, Molecular Structure, Particle Size, Phloroglucinol, Surface Properties, Thermodynamics, Water|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Chemistry|
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