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Mouse liver CYP2C39 is a novel retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase - Its down-regulation offers a molecular basis for liver retinoid accumulation and fibrosis in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-null mice

Andreola, F; Hayhurst, GP; Luo, G; Ferguson, SS; Gonzalez, FJ; Goldstein, JA; De Luca, LM; (2004) Mouse liver CYP2C39 is a novel retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase - Its down-regulation offers a molecular basis for liver retinoid accumulation and fibrosis in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-null mice. J BIOL CHEM , 279 (5) 3434 - 3438. 10.1074/jbc.M305832200. Gold open access

Abstract

Livers of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-null mice have high levels of retinoic acid (RA), retinol, and retinyl palmitate. Hepatic accumulation of RA in these mice may be responsible in part for the hepatic phenotype characterized by small liver size and fibrosis. The increased levels of hepatic RA may be due to decreased metabolism of RA to 4-hydroxyretinoic acid. To identify the P450 isoform(s) involved in RA metabolism, liver microsomes from AHR-null and wild-type mice were subjected to Western blotting and probed with antibodies to rat P450s that cross-react with murine forms. Signal intensity in Western blots probed with anti-rat CYP2C6 antibodies correlated with levels of RA 4-hydroxylation. Furthermore, this anti-rat CYP2C6 antibody inhibited RA 4-hydroxylase activity of wild-type mouse liver microsomes to the levels of AHR-null mouse liver. When used to screen a mouse liver cDNA expression library, this antibody exclusively recognized the murine P450 CYP2C39. Catalytic assays of five recombinant mouse CYP2Cs expressed in Escherichia coli revealed that only CYP2C39 was competent for RA 4-hydroxylation (K-m=812.3 nM and V-max 47.85 (fmol/min/pmol P450)). Real time reverse transcriptase-PCR used to assess the Cyp2C39 mRNA expression showed decreased levels (30%) of this transcript in AHR-null compared with wild-type liver, consistent with decreased protein levels observed by Western blot analysis using an antibody to a CYP2C39-specific peptide. These data show that CYP2C39 catalyzes RA catabolism and thus possibly controls RA levels in mouse liver. Down-regulation of Cyp2C39 is hypothesized to be responsible for the liver phenotype in the AHR-null mouse.

Type:Article
Title:Mouse liver CYP2C39 is a novel retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase - Its down-regulation offers a molecular basis for liver retinoid accumulation and fibrosis in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-null mice
Open access status:An open access publication
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M305832200
Keywords:AH-RECEPTOR, DEFICIENT MICE, CYTOCHROME-P450, METABOLISM, INVOLVEMENT, EXPRESSION, LACKING, CLONING, GROWTH, ALLELE

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