Therapeutic modulation of liver ischaemia reperfusion injury.
Doctoral thesis, UCL (University College London).
Liver Ischaemia Reperfusion Injury (IRI) leads to production of reactive oxygen species and cytokines, which affects hepatocellular function following liver resection and transplantation. This thesis examines 2 hypotheses: 1) The role of intravenous glycine in amelioration of liver IRI in a in vivo animal model of partial lobar liver IRI. 2) Does prophylactically administered N-acetylcysteine prevent liver IRI in patients undergoing elective liver resection. Materials and Methods 1) A rabbit model of hepatic lobar IRI was used to evaluate glycine. 3 groups (n=6) Sham group (laparotomy alone), ischaemia reperfusion (I/R) group (1 hour ischaemia and 6 hours of reperfusion), and glycine I/R group (IV glycine 5 mg/kg prior to the I/R protocol) were used. Portal blood flow, bile flow and bile was analysed by H1NMR spectroscopy. Hepatic microcirculation, intracellular tissue oxygenation, serum TNFα, IL-8, ALT, AST were measured at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours following reperfusion. 2) A randomised double blind clinical trial was conducted to assess the effect of NAC on liver IRI following liver resections. The main outcomes were: morbidity and mortality, ICAM-1 expression in liver tissue, liver function tests. Patients were randomised to receive NAC as IV infusion (NACG) or a placebo group (PG) which received 5% dextrose only. Immunohistochemistry for ICAM-1 was carried out on perioperative liver biopsies. Results 1) Glycine normalised the bile flow, reduced phosphatidylcholine shedding, lactate surge, and stimulated bile acid, pyruvate, glucose and acetoacetate release. Glycine improved portal blood flow, hepatic microcirculation by the 2nd hour, and hepatic intracellular tissue oxygenation by the 4th hour of reperfusion. Glycine ameliorated serum TNFα at 1, 2 and 4 hours and serum Il- 8, AST and ALT up to 6 hours post reperfusion as compared to the I/R alone group. 2) Of the 43 patients, 15 received NAC, 16 were randomised to the PG, 12 were excluded due to inoperable tumours. Serum ALT was reduced in NACG (p=0.001), while serum ALP was higher in the NACG (p=0.003). ICAM-1 expression was up-regulated in 6/16 patients in the PG and in 3/15 patients in NACG. ICAM-1 was down-regulated in 1/15 patients in the NACG and none in the PG, the difference was not significant. Conclusions 1) Glycine ameliorated liver IRI, improved bile flow and composition. 2) NAC ameliorated parenchymal liver injury and enhanced liver regeneration in patients undergoing elective liver resection.
|Title:||Therapeutic modulation of liver ischaemia reperfusion injury|
|Open access status:||An open access version is available from UCL Discovery|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Surgery and Interventional Science (Division of) > Research Department of General Surgery|
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