P2X receptors in health and disease.
Seven P2X receptor subunits have been cloned which form functional homo- and heterotrimers. These are cation-selective channels, equally permeable to Na(+) and K(+) and with significant Ca(2+) permeability. The three-dimensional structure of the P2X receptor is described. The channel pore is formed by the α-helical transmembrane spanning region 2 of each subunit. When ATP binds to a P2X receptor, the pore opens within milliseconds, allowing the cations to flow. P2X receptors are expressed on both central and peripheral neurons, where they are involved in neuromuscular and synaptic neurotransmission and neuromodulation. They are also expressed in most types of nonneuronal cells and mediate a wide range of actions, such as contraction of smooth muscle, secretion, and immunomodulation. Changes in the expression of P2X receptors have been characterized in many pathological conditions of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urinogenital systems and in the brain and special senses. The therapeutic potential of P2X receptor agonists and antagonists is currently being investigated in a range of disorders, including chronic neuropathic and inflammatory pain, depression, cystic fibrosis, dry eye, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, dysfunctional urinary bladder, and cancer.
|Title:||P2X receptors in health and disease.|
|Keywords:||Animals, Disease, Health, Humans, Models, Biological, Models, Molecular, Receptors, Purinergic P2X|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
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