Purinergic signalling: past, present and future.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
The discovery of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmission in the gut and bladder in the early 1960's is described as well as the identification of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a transmitter in these nerves in the early 1970's. The concept of purinergic cotransmission was formulated in 1976 and it is now recognized that ATP is a cotransmitter in all nerves in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Two families of receptors to purines were recognized in 1978, P1 ( adenosine) receptors and P2 receptors sensitive to ATP and adenosine diphosphate ( ADP). Cloning of these receptors in the early 1990's was a turning point in the acceptance of the purinergic signalling hypothesis and there are currently 4 subtypes of P1 receptors, 7 subtypes of P2X ion channel receptors and 8 subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors. Both short-term purinergic signalling in neurotransmission, neuromodulation and neurosecretion and long-term ( trophic) purinergic signalling of cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, death in development and regeneration are recognized. There is now much known about the mechanisms underlying ATP release and extracellular breakdown by ecto-nucleotidases. The recent emphasis on purinergic neuropathology is discussed, including changes in purinergic cotransmission in development and ageing and in bladder diseases and hypertension. The involvement of neuron-glial cell interactions in various diseases of the central nervous system, including neuropathic pain, trauma and ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders and epilepsy are also considered.
|Title:||Purinergic signalling: past, present and future|
|Location:||Ribeirao Preto, BRAZIL|
|Open access status:||An open access version is available from UCL Discovery|
|Additional information:||This work is published under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY). The authors retain ownership of the copyright for their article and can allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and/or copy articles published in the BJMBR, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.|
|Keywords:||Purinoceptors P1, P2X, P2Y, ATP release and breakdown, Purinergic neuropathology, Pain, Neurodegenerative diseases, CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM, GATED ION CHANNELS, GUINEA-PIG, ATP RECEPTOR, ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE, EXTRACELLULAR ATP, TAENIA-COLI, SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION, MAMMALIAN NEURONS, STRUCTURAL MOTIF|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Biosciences (Division of)|
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