Particle mediated co-delivery of IL-10 and antigen
inhibits T cell activation but fails to induce tolerance.
Doctoral thesis, UCL (University College London).
Immune disorders such as allergy and autoimmunity are becoming increasingly common in developed countries. Self-reactive T cells exist in both healthy and autoimmune individuals. It is generally understood that hyperimmune disorders are caused by insufficient regulation, namely loss of activity of regulatory T cells. Whilst regulatory T cells exist naturally it is also possible to induce them both in vitro and in vivo. Immunotherapeutic techniques aim to provide noninflammatory exposure of antigen to the immune system with the aim of inducing antigen-specific regulatory T cells. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with well known immunosuppressive qualities. It inhibits both the migration and the antigen-presenting ability of dendritic cells. It also has direct effects on T cells. Indeed, IL-10-secreting TR1 regulatory T cells were identified almost 15 years ago; their in vitro generation being dependent on exposure to IL-10. Particle-mediated DNA delivery (PMDD) is a promising method of immunisation and is especially suited to vaccines intended to have greater control over the response they induce. One of the main reasons for this is the possibility of including genes encoding immunomodulatory molecules alongside the antigen gene. This study utilises a mouse model involving the adoptive transfer of TCR-transgenic CD4+ T cells and establishes the response of these cells to PMDD immunisation. The model was then used to examine the effect of coadministration of the IL-10 gene. Its inclusion in the vaccine suppressed the response to antigen. This effect was maximal when the IL-10 gene was expressed in the same cell as the antigen gene. Using sequential immunisations the model was extended in order to study long-term effects, namely tolerance and the induction of regulatory T cells. Finally a mouse model of allergic asthma was used to examine any tolerogenic/therapeutic effects of the antigen-IL-10 vaccine. No significant longterm tolerance to antigen was identified. These results demonstrate that whilst the presence of IL-10 clearly inhibits the T cell response to antigen it does not necessarily confer tolerogenic properties on these cells. This brings into question whether IL-10 in the periphery, supplied, for example, by TR1 cells, generates fresh regulatory T cells or merely inhibits the response to a particular antigenic challenge.
|Title:||Particle mediated co-delivery of IL-10 and antigen inhibits T cell activation but fails to induce tolerance|
|Open access status:||An open access version is available from UCL Discovery|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Child Health > Department of Infection and Immunity|
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