Sommer, V and Denham, A and Little, K (2002) Postconflict behaviour of wild Indian langur monkeys: avoidance of opponents but rarely affinity. ANIM BEHAV , 63 637 - 648.
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Friendly postconflict (PC) interactions between former opponents have been described for a large number of primate species held in captivity. We investigated conflict management behaviour for wild Hanuman langurs, Semnopithecus (Presbytis) entellus entellus, in India, using a large sample of over 6000 agonistic and affinitive interactions recorded in one one-male/multifemale troop and three all-male bands. We compared dyadic PC affinity with the dyadic baseline affinity during the overall observation time to minimize biases of traditional matched-control samples. PC affinity was recorded during only 15% of all dyads (immature male-immature male 0%, adult male-adult male 0%, adult male-immature male 5%, adult male-adult female 0%, adult female-adult female 42%). PC affinity is probably absent amongst males because their dominance relationships are strongly asymmetrical, leaving little room for emotional insecurity. Dyads among females, on the other hand, reflect frequent rank changes and close kinship which probably corresponds to higher levels of emotional uncertainty and greater need for PC affinity. Overall, PC affinity reached only 26% of the randomly expected value. Thus, the vast majority of langur monkey opponents avoided each other after conflicts. Avoidance as a low-cost option for group-living animals to cope with conflicts is often not possible in captivity. This suggests that reports of high rates of reconciliation may be at least partly-artefacts of captivity. (C) 2002 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Title:||Postconflict behaviour of wild Indian langur monkeys: avoidance of opponents but rarely affinity|
|Keywords:||MACAQUES MACACA-FASCICULARIS, POST-CONFLICT BEHAVIOR, PRESBYTIS-ENTELLUS, REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS, PIGTAIL MACAQUES, FEMALE BABOONS, RHESUS-MONKEYS, RECONCILIATION, PRIMATES, DOMINANCE|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Arts and Social Sciences > Faculty of Social and Historical Sciences > Anthropology|
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