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Influence of specific nutrients on progression of atherosclerosis, vascular function, haemostasis and inflammation in coronary heart disease patients: a systematic review

Hamer, M; Steptoe, A; (2006) Influence of specific nutrients on progression of atherosclerosis, vascular function, haemostasis and inflammation in coronary heart disease patients: a systematic review. BRIT J NUTR , 95 (5) 849 - 859. 10.1079/BJN20061741. Green open access

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Abstract

Epidemiological evidence suggests that the diet influences CHD risk, although the protective effects of dietary intervention for patients in diseased states has gained less attention. Secondary care prevention strategies for patients often involves drug therapy that is expensive and can result in undesirable side effects. Therefore, it is potentially beneficial to utilise other strategies, such as diet, in the management of CHD. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of specific nutrients on progression of atherosclerosis, vascular function, haemostasis and inflammation in CHD patients. Results show substantial evidence for the efficacy of n-3 oils in reducing cardiovascular mortality and one mechanism may be related to the stabilisation of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, although the effects on progression of atherosclerosis, haemostatic activity and vascular inflammation remain equivocal. Promising data also exist for the efficacy of flavonoid-rich foods for improving endothelial function, although strong clinical endpoint evidence is lacking. The variation in the efficacy of certain nutrients in CHD patients may be explained by genetics, existing risk factors, psychosocial factors and methodological issues, although these are often not adequately taken into consideration. We conclude that there is a need to undertake more appropriately designed trials in specific clinical populations, controlling for additional lifestyle and risk factors, examining potential interactions with medications, and also establishing methods to increase compliance to dietary recommendations before specific nutrients can be widely prescribed for secondary prevention. Future research should also utilise techniques that provide a direct measure of atherosclerosis.

Type: Article
Title: Influence of specific nutrients on progression of atherosclerosis, vascular function, haemostasis and inflammation in coronary heart disease patients: a systematic review
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1079/BJN20061741
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN20061741
Language: English
Additional information: © The Authors 2006
Keywords: coronary heart disease management, fish oils, flavonoids, endothelial function, inflammation, POLYUNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS, RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL, ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION, NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE, VENTRICULAR SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION, IMPROVES ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION, MODERATE ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL, GISSI-PREVENZIONE TRIAL, BLACK TEA CONSUMPTION
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Behavioural Science and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/118074
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