Endocytosis of enveloped animal viruses.
Ciba Found Symp
After attaching to the cell surface, virus particles are rapidly internalized by endocytosis and channelled into the lysosomal compartment. The endocytosis occurs by a pinocytic process involving coated pits and coated vesicles. Intermediate pre-lysosomal vacuoles, termed endosomes, are recognized as a part of the intracellular pathway. Our studies have shown that for several of the enveloped viruses (toga viruses, orthomyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses) the endocytic pathway is essential for productive infection. In these cases the viral genome penetrates from the lysosomes where the virus membrane fuses with the lysosomal membrane. The low pH in the lysosomes triggers membrane fusion by causing a conformational change in the virus spike glycoproteins, which results in the expression of potent fusion activity. As a result of the fusion reaction the nucleocapsids are transferred into the cytoplasm. In this paper we review some work in which Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been used to probe the adsorptive endocytosis pathway in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. In addition, we present new data on the kinetics by which the contents of the endocytic vacuoles become acidified. In these studies the pH-dependent penetration by SFV has been used as an indicator of pH.
|Title:||Endocytosis of enveloped animal viruses.|
|Keywords:||Ammonium Chloride, Animals, Cell Line, Cricetinae, Endocytosis, Endosomes, Kidney, Kinetics, Lysosomes, Pinocytosis, Semliki forest virus, Virus Replication|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
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