Petzold, A; Keir, G; Kerr, M; Kay, A; Kitchen, N; Smith, M; Thompson, EJ; (2006) Early identification of secondary brain damage in subarachnoid hemorrhage: A role for glial fibrillary acidic protein. J NEUROTRAUM , 23 (7) 1179 - 1184.
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Secondary ischaemic deficit adversely affects outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Astrocytes are vulnerable to ischemia, releasing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) when challenged. In this study, we followed nine patients with SAH who underwent extra-ventricular drainage for the management of secondary hydrocephalus. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected daily for up to 14 days. CSF GFAP was quantified using a standard ELISA. In the patients, we found that the CSF GFAP values were pathologically elevated in 83/89 (93%) of the CSF samples. The levels were highest on day 1 (median = 47.64 ng/mL) and decreased to 11.19 ng/mL on day 3, leveling out at approximately 1 ng/mL after 10 days. In non-survivors, a secondary rise of GFAP levels became significant during the high-risk period for vasospasm, with median levels of 21.76 ng/mL compared to 2.62 ng/mL in the survivors (p = 0.037) on day 6. This study suggests that CSF GFAP levels are of prognostic value in SAH. Additionally, the difference in the slope of GFAP levels between survivors (rapid wash-out) and non-survivors (secondary peaks) may allow differentiation between primary brain injury from secondary brain damage due to delayed cerebral ischaemia.
|Title:||Early identification of secondary brain damage in subarachnoid hemorrhage: A role for glial fibrillary acidic protein|
|Keywords:||astrocytosis, biomarker, cell culture, cerebrospinal fiuid, GFAP, neuro-critical care, subarachnoid hemorrhage, GOOD NEUROLOGICAL RECOVERY, NEURON-SPECIFIC ENOLASE, CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID, S-100 PROTEIN, PSYCHOSOCIAL OUTCOMES, SERUM S100B, ISCHEMIA, MANAGEMENT, MARKERS, INJURY|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Neurology|
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