Insights into the role of Toll-like receptors in modulation of T cell responses.
CELL TISSUE RES
141 - 152.
The innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are intimately involved in the early sensing of invading microorganisms or their structural components. Engagement of TLRs with their ligands results in activation of several downstream intracellular pathways leading to activation of innate and adaptive immune system cells. It was initially thought that TLRs are primarily expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and that interactions between microbial ligands and TLRs in these cells will indirectly result in activation of cells of the adaptive immune system, especially T cells. However, it has now become evident that TLRs are also expressed by various T cell subsets, such as conventional alpha beta T cells, regulatory T cells, and gamma delta T cells as well as natural killer T cells. Importantly, it appears that at least in some of these T cell subsets, TLRs are functionally active, because stimulation of these cells with TLR agonists in the absence of APCs results in exertion of effector or regulatory functions of T cells. The present review attempts to summarize the recent findings related to TLR expression in different T cell subsets and the direct role of TLRs in the induction and regulation of T cell responses, including those responses that occur at mucosal surfaces. In addition, the potential use of TLR agonists for steering T cell responses as a prophylactic or therapeutic strategy in the context of infectious, allergic or autoimmune diseases is explored.
|Title:||Insights into the role of Toll-like receptors in modulation of T cell responses|
|Keywords:||T cells, Toll-like receptors, Innate immunity, Immune response, Mucosal immunity, ESCHERICHIA-COLI INFECTION, VIRAL DANGER SIGNALS, REGULATORY-CELLS, DENDRITIC CELLS, NKT CELLS, SUPPRESSIVE CAPACITY, AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE, IMMUNE-RESPONSE, UP-REGULATION, LIVER-INJURY|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Medicine (Division of)|
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