Identification and characterization of a thrombomodulin gene mutation coding for an elongated protein with reduced expression in a kindred with myocardial infarction.
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Thrombomodulin is an endothelial cell receptor for thrombin. It functions as a natural anticoagulant by greatly accelerating activation of protein C by thrombin, Using a direct gene screening strategy we identified a frameshift insertion mutation, insT 1689, in the thrombomodulin gene of a patient with myocardial infarction, The mutation predicts an elongated gene product because of substitution of the 12 C-terminal amino acids by 61 abnormal residues. Pedigree analysis showed that the mutation was also likely to have been present in a sibling who had had fatal myocardial infarction, Carriers of the mutant allele express significantly lower amounts of thrombomodulin on the surface of their monocytes detected by flow cytometry and have lower levels of soluble thrombomodulin in plasma. Wild type and the mutant thrombomodulin were expressed in COS-7 cells. Cellular distribution of the expressed proteins was evaluated by immunofluorescence microscopy, which showed reduced cell surface expression and intense juxtanuclear localization of the abnormal protein. This suggests impaired, translocation through the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus. Cells expressing abnormal thrombomodulin had reduced ability (similar to 2.5-fold) to accelerate the thrombin mediated activation of protein C. This is the first demonstration of reduced expression arising from a natural thrombomodulin gene mutation. The results provide support for the suggestion that gene mutation of thrombomodulin may be important in the pathogenesis of some cases of occlusive thrombotic disease.
|Title:||Identification and characterization of a thrombomodulin gene mutation coding for an elongated protein with reduced expression in a kindred with myocardial infarction|
|Keywords:||NATURAL ANTICOAGULANT PATHWAYS, AMINO-ACID DIMORPHISM, FACTOR-V-LEIDEN, INHERITED THROMBOPHILIA, RISK-FACTORS, YOUNG-WOMEN, THROMBIN, PROTHROMBIN, ACTIVATION, COFACTOR|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science|
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