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Extreme heterogeneity in sex chromosome differentiation and dosage compensation in livebearers

Darolti, I; Wright, AE; Sandkam, BA; Morris, J; Bloch, NI; Farre, M; Fuller, RC; ... Mank, J; + view all (2019) Extreme heterogeneity in sex chromosome differentiation and dosage compensation in livebearers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (In press).

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Abstract

Once recombination is halted between the X and Y chromosome, sex chromosomes begin to differentiate and transition to heteromorphism. While there is a remarkable variation across clades in the degree of sex chromosome divergence, far less is known about variation in sex chromosome differentiation within clades. Here, we combined whole genome and transcriptome sequencing data to characterise the structure and conservation of sex chromosome systems across Poeciliidae, the livebearing clade that includes guppies. We found that the Poecilia reticulata XY system is much older than previously thought, being shared not only with its sister species, Poecilia wingei, but also with Poecilia picta, which diverged 30 mya. Despite the shared ancestry, we uncovered an extreme heterogeneity across these species in the proportion of the sex chromosome with suppressed recombination, and the degree of Y chromosome decay. The sex chromosomes in P. reticulata are largely homomorphic, with recombination persisting over a substantial fraction. However, the sex chromosomes in P. picta are completely non-recombining and strikingly heteromorphic. ln addition to being highly divergent, the sex chromosome system in P. picta includes a neo-sex chromosome, the result of a fusion between the ancestral sex chromosome and part of chromosome 7. Remarkably, the profound degradation of the ancestral Y chromosome in P. picta is counterbalanced by the evolution of complete dosage compensation in this species, the first such documented case in teleost fish. Our results offer important insight into the initial stages of sex chromosome evolution and dosage compensation.

Type: Article
Title: Extreme heterogeneity in sex chromosome differentiation and dosage compensation in livebearers
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1101/589788
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Y degeneration, dosage compensation, recombination, poeciliids
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10079521
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