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Efficacy and Safety of Pembrolizumab for Heavily Pretreated Patients With Advanced, Metastatic Adenocarcinoma or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus. The Phase 2 KEYNOTE-180 Study

Shah, MA; Kojima, T; Hochhauser, D; Enzinger, P; Raimbourg, J; Hollebecque, A; Lordick, F; ... Kato, K; + view all (2019) Efficacy and Safety of Pembrolizumab for Heavily Pretreated Patients With Advanced, Metastatic Adenocarcinoma or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus. The Phase 2 KEYNOTE-180 Study. JAMA Oncology , 5 (4) pp. 546-550. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.5441.

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Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Effective treatment options are limited for patients with advanced, metastatic esophageal cancer progressing after 2 or more lines of systemic therapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab for patients with advanced, metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) or advanced, metastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction that progressed after 2 or more lines of systemic therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This phase 2, open-label, interventional, single-arm study, KEYNOTE-180, enrolled 121 patients from January 12, 2016, to March 21, 2017, from 57 sites in 10 countries. Patients had advanced, metastatic esophageal cancer that progressed after 2 or more lines of therapy and had evaluable tumor samples for biomarkers. INTERVENTIONS: Pembrolizumab, 200 mg, was administered intravenously every 3 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxic effects, or study withdrawal, for up to 2 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary end point was objective response rate per the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors by central imaging review for all patients. RESULTS: As of September 18, 2017, of 121 enrolled patients (100 men and 21 women; median age, 65 years [range, 33-87 years]), 18 (14.9%) had undergone 3 or more prior therapies, 63 (52.1%) had ESCC, and 58 (47.9%) had tumors positive for programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), defined as a combined positive score of 10 or higher assessed by immunohistochemistry. Median duration of follow-up was 5.8 months (range, 0.2-18.3 months). Objective response rate was 9.9% (95% CI, 5.2%-16.7%) among all patients (12 of 121), and median duration of response was not reached (range, 1.9-14.4 months). Objective response rate was 14.3% (95% CI, 6.7%-25.4%) among patients with ESCC (9 of 63), 5.2% (95% CI, 1.1%-14.4%) among patients with adenocarcinoma (3 of 58), 13.8% (95% CI, 6.1%-25.4%) among patients with PD-L1–positive tumors (8 of 58), and 6.3% (95% CI, 1.8%-15.5%) among patients with PD-L1–negative tumors (4 of 63). Overall, 15 patients (12.4%) had treatment-related grade 3 to 5 adverse events. Only 5 patients (4.1%) discontinued treatment because of adverse events. There was 1 treatment-related death from pneumonitis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Where effective treatment options are an unmet need, pembrolizumab provided durable antitumor activity with manageable safety in patients with heavily pretreated esophageal cancer. Phase 3 studies evaluating pembrolizumab vs standard therapy for patients with esophageal cancer progressing after first-line therapy or in combination with chemotherapy as first-line therapy for patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic esophageal cancer are ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02559687

Type: Article
Title: Efficacy and Safety of Pembrolizumab for Heavily Pretreated Patients With Advanced, Metastatic Adenocarcinoma or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus. The Phase 2 KEYNOTE-180 Study
DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.5441
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.5441
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute > Research Department of Oncology
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10073229
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