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An alternative approach to contrast-enhanced imaging: diffusion-weighted imaging and T1-weighted imaging identifies and quantifies necrosis in Wilms tumour

Rogers, HJ; Verhagen, MV; Shelmerdine, SC; Clark, CA; Hales, PW; (2019) An alternative approach to contrast-enhanced imaging: diffusion-weighted imaging and T1-weighted imaging identifies and quantifies necrosis in Wilms tumour. European Radiology 10.1007/s00330-018-5907-z. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Volume of necrosis in Wilms tumour is informative of chemotherapy response. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI (T1w) provides a measure of necrosis using gadolinium. This study aimed to develop a non-invasive method of identifying non-enhancing (necrotic) tissue in Wilms tumour. METHODS: In this single centre, retrospective study, post-chemotherapy MRI data from 34 Wilms tumour patients were reviewed (March 2012-March 2017). Cases with multiple b value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T1w imaging pre- and post-gadolinium were included. Fractional T1 enhancement maps were generated from the gadolinium T1w data. Multiple linear regression determined whether fitted parameters from a mono-exponential model (ADC) and bi-exponential model (IVIM - intravoxel incoherent motion) (D, D*, f) could predict fractional T1 enhancement in Wilms tumours, using normalised pre-gadolinium T1w (T1wnorm) signal as an additional predictor. Measured and predicted fractional enhancement values were compared using the Bland-Altman plot. An optimum threshold for separating necrotic and viable tissue using fractional T1 enhancement was established using ROC. RESULTS: ADC and D (diffusion coefficient) provided the strongest predictors of fractional T1 enhancement in tumour tissue (p < 0.001). Using the ADC-T1wnorm model (adjusted R2 = 0.4), little bias (mean difference = - 0.093, 95% confidence interval = [- 0.52, 0.34]) was shown between predicted and measured values of fractional enhancement and analysed via the Bland-Altman plot. The optimal threshold for differentiating viable and necrotic tissue was 33% fractional T1 enhancement (based on measured values, AUC = 0.93; sensitivity = 85%; specificity = 90%). CONCLUSIONS: Combining ADC and T1w imaging predicts enhancement in Wilms tumours and reliably identifies and measures necrotic tissue without gadolinium. KEY POINTS: • Alternative method to identify necrotic tissue in Wilms tumour without using contrast agents but rather using diffusion and T 1 weighted MRI. • A method is presented to visualise and quantify necrotic tissue in Wilms tumour without contrast. • The proposed method has the potential to reduce costs and burden to Wilms tumour patients who undergo longitudinal follow-up imaging as contrast agents are not used.

Type: Article
Title: An alternative approach to contrast-enhanced imaging: diffusion-weighted imaging and T1-weighted imaging identifies and quantifies necrosis in Wilms tumour
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s00330-018-5907-z
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5907-z
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author(s) 2018. This article is published with open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Keywords: Diffusion, Gadolinium, Magnetic resonance imaging, Necrosis, Neoplasm
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Metabolism and Experi Therapeutics
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > ICH Developmental Neurosciences Prog
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10065161
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