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Metabolic and redox signaling in the retina

Léveillard, T; Sahel, J-A; (2017) Metabolic and redox signaling in the retina. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences , 74 (20) pp. 3649-3665. 10.1007/s00018-016-2318-7. Green open access

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Abstract

Visual perception by photoreceptors relies on the interaction of incident photons from light with a derivative of vitamin A that is covalently linked to an opsin molecule located in a special subcellular structure, the photoreceptor outer segment. The photochemical reaction produced by the photon is optimal when the opsin molecule, a seven-transmembrane protein, is embedded in a lipid bilayer of optimal fluidity. This is achieved in vertebrate photoreceptors by a high proportion of lipids made with polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have the detrimental property of being oxidized and damaged by light. Photoreceptors cannot divide, but regenerate their outer segments. This is an enormous energetic challenge that explains why photoreceptors metabolize glucose through aerobic glycolysis, as cancer cells do. Uptaken glucose produces metabolites to renew that outer segment as well as reducing power through the pentose phosphate pathway to protect photoreceptors against oxidative damage.

Type: Article
Title: Metabolic and redox signaling in the retina
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s00018-016-2318-7
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-016-2318-7
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2016. Open Access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Keywords: Aerobic glycolysis, Cone photoreceptor, Glucose transporter, Nucleoredoxin-like genes, Pentose phosphate pathway, Retinal degeneration, Rod-derived cone viability factor, Thioredoxin, Animals, Fatty Acids, Glucose, Humans, Oxidation-Reduction, Oxidative Stress, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Photoreceptor Cells, Retina, Retinal Diseases, Rhodopsin, Signal Transduction
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10054206
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