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Highly Efficient Graphene-Based Optical Modulator With Edge Plasmonic Effect

Hao, R; Ye, Z; Peng, X; Gu, Y; Jiao, J; Zhu, H; Sha, WEI; (2018) Highly Efficient Graphene-Based Optical Modulator With Edge Plasmonic Effect. IEEE Photonics Journal , 10 (3) , Article 4500807. 10.1109/JPHOT.2018.2841657. Green open access

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Abstract

We report a highly efficient graphene-based modulator by using an edge plasmonic effect in this paper. The modulation efficiency of the proposed modulator can be as large as 1.58 dB/μm, which is several times larger than that of previous reported modulators. By enhancing the gap plasmon mode and the edge plasmonic effect in a well-designed diagonal waveguide, a wedge-to-wedge SPP mode is strongly confined in both horizontal and vertical directions in terms of a small mode area (A_{ef}/A₀ < 1/1000), which significantly improves the light-graphene interaction. A large modulation efficiency of 4.05 dB/μm has been obtained after geometry optimization, which is the best values reported in our knowledge. The physical reason for the improvement is explored. We find the sharpness of the waveguide edges has strong impact on the field enhancement and modulation efficiency. Geometry optimization is made to further investigate the enhancement mechanisms and modulation capacities. Our results may promote the development of active nanophotonic devices incorporating two-dimensional materials.

Type: Article
Title: Highly Efficient Graphene-Based Optical Modulator With Edge Plasmonic Effect
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2018.2841657
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2018.2841657
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the version of record. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Graphene, Optical waveguides, Plasmons, Optical modulation
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Electronic and Electrical Eng
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10053971
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