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Meta-analytic findings reveal lower means but higher variances in visuospatial ability in dyslexia

Chamberlain, R; Brunswick, N; Siev, J; McManus, IC; (2018) Meta-analytic findings reveal lower means but higher variances in visuospatial ability in dyslexia. British Journal of Psychology , 109 (4) pp. 897-916. 10.1111/bjop.12321. Green open access

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Abstract

Conflicting empirical and theoretical accounts suggest that dyslexia is associated with either average, enhanced, or impoverished high-level visuospatial processing relative to controls. Such heterogeneous results could be due to the presence of wider variability in dyslexic samples, which is unlikely to be identified at the single study level, due to lack of power. To address this, this study reports a meta-analysis of means and variances in high-level visuospatial ability in 909 non-dyslexic and 956 dyslexic individuals. The findings suggest that dyslexia is associated not only with a lower mean performance on visuospatial tasks but also with greater variability in performance. Through novel meta-analytic techniques, we demonstrate a negative effect size for mean differences (-.457), but a positive effect size for SD differences (+.118; SD ratio = 1.107). In doing so, this is the first study to demonstrate impoverished visuospatial processing of the majority of individuals with dyslexia in addition to greater variance in performance in this group. The findings advocate for further consideration of both the presence of, and reasons for, increased variance in perception, attention, and memory across neurodevelopmental disorders.

Type: Article
Title: Meta-analytic findings reveal lower means but higher variances in visuospatial ability in dyslexia
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12321
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12321
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: dyslexia, meta-analysis of variance, visuospatial ability
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences > Clinical, Edu and Hlth Psychology
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10052683
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