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Intimal and medial arterial changes defined by ultra-high-frequency ultrasound: Response to changing risk factors in children with chronic kidney disease

Dangardt, F; Charakida, M; Chiesa, S; Bhowruth, D; Rapala, A; Thurn, D; Schaefer, F; ... Shroff, R; + view all (2018) Intimal and medial arterial changes defined by ultra-high-frequency ultrasound: Response to changing risk factors in children with chronic kidney disease. PLoS One , 13 (6) , Article e0198547. 10.1371/journal.pone.0198547. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are exposed to both traditional 'Framingham' and uremia related cardiovascular risk factors that drive atherosclerotic and arteriosclerotic disease, but these cannot be differentiated using conventional ultrasound. We used ultra-high-frequency ultrasound (UHFUS) to differentiate medial thickness (MT) from intimal thickness (IT) in CKD patients, identify their determinants and monitor their progression. METHODS: Fifty-four children and adolescents with CKD and 12 healthy controls underwent UHFUS measurements using 55-70MHz transducers in common carotid and dorsal pedal arteries. Annual follow-up imaging was performed in 31 patients. RESULTS: CKD patients had higher carotid MT and dorsal pedal IT and MT compared to controls. The carotid MT in CKD correlated with serum phosphate (p<0.001, r = 0.42), PTH (p = 0.03, r = 0.36) and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.03, r = 0.34). Following multivariable analysis, being on dialysis, serum phosphate levels and mean arterial pressure remained the only independent predictors of carotid MT (R2 64%). Transplanted children had lower carotid and dorsal pedal MT compared to CKD and dialysis patients (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01 respectively). At 1-year follow-up, transplanted children had a decrease in carotid MT (p = 0.01), but an increase in dorsal pedal IT (p = 0.04) that independently correlated with annualized change in BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Using UHFUS, we have shown that CKD is associated with exclusively medial arterial changes that attenuate when the uremic milieu is ameliorated after transplantation. In contrast, after transplantation intimal disease develops as hypertension and obesity become prevalent, representing rapid vascular remodeling in response to a changing cardiovascular risk factor profile.

Type: Article
Title: Intimal and medial arterial changes defined by ultra-high-frequency ultrasound: Response to changing risk factors in children with chronic kidney disease
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198547
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198547
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2018 Dangardt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10050558
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