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Scanning the Internet for Liveness

Bano, S; Richter, P; Javed, M; Sundaresan, S; Durumeric, Z; Murdoch, S; Mortier, R; (2018) Scanning the Internet for Liveness. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review , 48 (2) pp. 2-9. 10.1145/3213232.3213234. Green open access

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Abstract

Internet-wide scanning depends on a notion of liveness: does a target IP address respond to a probe packet? However, the interpretation of such responses, or lack of them, is nuanced and depends on multiple factors, including: how we probed, how different protocols in the network stack interact, the presence of filtering policies near the target, and temporal churn in IP responsiveness. Although often neglected, these factors can significantly affect the results of active measurement studies. We develop a taxonomy of liveness which we employ to develop a method to perform concurrent IPv4 scans using ICMP, five TCP-based, and two UDP-based protocols, comprehensively capturing all responses to our probes, including negative and cross-layer responses. Leveraging our methodology, we present a systematic analysis of liveness and how it manifests in active scanning campaigns, yielding practical insights and methodological improvements for the design and the execution of active Internet measurement studies.

Type: Article
Title: Scanning the Internet for Liveness
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1145/3213232.3213234
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3213232.3213234
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10048442
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