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Reverse Myocardial Remodeling Following Valve Replacement in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

Treibel, TA; Kozor, R; Schofield, R; Benedetti, G; Fontana, M; Bhuva, AN; Sheikh, A; ... Moon, JC; + view all (2018) Reverse Myocardial Remodeling Following Valve Replacement in Patients With Aortic Stenosis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology , 71 (8) pp. 860-871. 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.12.035. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, a key process in human cardiac disease, results from cellular (hypertrophy) and extracellular matrix expansion (interstitial fibrosis). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether human myocardial interstitial fibrosis in aortic stenosis (AS) is plastic and can regress. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic, severe AS (n = 181; aortic valve area index 0.4 ± 0.1 cm2/m2) were assessed pre-aortic valve replacement (AVR) by echocardiography (AS severity, diastology), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) (for volumes, function, and focal or diffuse fibrosis), biomarkers (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T), and the 6-min walk test. CMR was used to measure the extracellular volume fraction (ECV), thereby deriving matrix volume (LV mass × ECV) and cell volume (LV mass × [1 - ECV]). Biopsy excluded occult bystander disease. Assessment was repeated at 1 year post-AVR. RESULTS: At 1 year post-AVR in 116 pacemaker-free survivors (age 70 ± 10 years; 54% male), mean valve gradient had improved (48 ± 16 mm Hg to 12 ± 6 mm Hg; p < 0.001), and indexed LV mass had regressed by 19% (88 ± 26 g/m2to 71 ± 19 g/m2; p < 0.001). Focal fibrosis by CMR late gadolinium enhancement did not change, but ECV increased (28.2 ± 2.9% to 29.9 ± 4.0%; p < 0.001): this was the result of a 16% reduction in matrix volume (25 ± 9 ml/m2to 21 ± 7 ml/m2; p < 0.001) but a proportionally greater 22% reduction in cell volume (64 ± 18 ml/m2to 50 ± 13 ml/m2; p < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by improvement in diastolic function, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, 6-min walk test results, and New York Heart Association functional class. CONCLUSIONS: Post-AVR, focal fibrosis does not resolve, but diffuse fibrosis and myocardial cellular hypertrophy regress. Regression is accompanied by structural and functional improvements suggesting that human diffuse fibrosis is plastic, measurable by CMR and a potential therapeutic target. (Regression of Myocardial Fibrosis After Aortic Valve Replacement; NCT02174471).

Type: Article
Title: Reverse Myocardial Remodeling Following Valve Replacement in Patients With Aortic Stenosis
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.12.035
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.12.035
Language: English
Additional information: ª 2018 THE AUTHORS. PUBLISHED BY ELSEVIER ON BEHALF OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY FOUNDATION. THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY-NC-ND LICENSE ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ ) .
Keywords: Aortic stenosis, fibrosis, left ventricular hypertrophy
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10044673
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