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Platinum Nanocatalyst Amplification: Redefining the Gold Standard for Lateral Flow Immunoassays with Ultrabroad Dynamic Range

Loynachan, CN; Thomas, MR; Gray, ER; Richards, DA; Kim, J; Miller, BS; Brookes, JC; ... Stevens, MM; + view all (2018) Platinum Nanocatalyst Amplification: Redefining the Gold Standard for Lateral Flow Immunoassays with Ultrabroad Dynamic Range. ACS Nano , 12 (1) pp. 279-288. 10.1021/acsnano.7b06229. Green open access

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Abstract

Paper-based lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are one of the most widely used point-of-care (PoC) devices, however, their application in early disease diagnostics is often limited due to insufficient sensitivity for the requisite sample sizes and the short timeframes of PoC testing. To address this, we developed a serum-stable, nanoparticle catalyst-labelled LFIA with a sensitivity surpassing that of both current commercial and published sensitivities for paper-based detection of p24, one of the earliest and most conserved biomarkers of HIV. We report the synthesis and characterization of porous platinum core-shell nanocatalysts (PtNCs), which show high catalytic activity when exposed to complex human blood serum samples. We explored the application of antibody functionalized PtNCs with strategically and orthogonally modified nanobodies with high affinity and specificity toward p24 and establish the key larger nanoparticle size regimes needed for efficient amplification and performance in LFIA. Harnessing the catalytic amplification of PtNCs enabled naked-eye detection of p24 spiked into sera in the low femtomolar range (ca. 0.8 pg•mL-1), and the detection of acute phase HIV in clinical human plasma samples in under 20 minutes. This provides a versatile absorbance-based and rapid LFIA with sensitivity capable of significantly reducing the HIV acute phase detection window. This diagnostic may be readily adapted for detection of other biomolecules; as an ultrasensitive screening tool for infectious and non-communicable diseases, and can be capitalized upon in PoC settings for early disease detection.

Type: Article
Title: Platinum Nanocatalyst Amplification: Redefining the Gold Standard for Lateral Flow Immunoassays with Ultrabroad Dynamic Range
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b06229
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b06229
Language: English
Additional information: © 2017 American Chemical Society. ACS AuthorChoice - This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.
Keywords: Lateral flow immunoassay, porous platinum core-shell nanoparticles, broad dynamic range, enzyme mimic, nanobodies, biorthogonal chemistry, point-of-care, HIV detection
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Chemistry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > London Centre for Nanotechnology
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10040422
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