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Snarky Signatures: Minimal Signatures of Knowledge from Simulation-Extractable SNARKs

Groth, J; Maller, M; (2017) Snarky Signatures: Minimal Signatures of Knowledge from Simulation-Extractable SNARKs. In: Katz, J and Shacham, H, (eds.) Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2017: 37th Annual International Cryptology Conference: Proceedings, Part I. (pp. pp. 581-612). Springer: Cham, Switzerland. Green open access

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Abstract

We construct a pairing based simulation-extractable SNARK (SE-SNARK) that consists of only 3 group elements and has highly efficient verification. By formally linking SE-SNARKs to signatures of knowledge, we then obtain a succinct signature of knowledge consisting of only 3 group elements. SE-SNARKs enable a prover to give a proof that they know a witness to an instance in a manner which is: (1) succinct - proofs are short and verifier computation is small; (2) zero-knowledge - proofs do not reveal the witness; (3) simulation-extractable - it is only possible to prove instances to which you know a witness, even when you have already seen a number of simulated proofs. We also prove that any pairing based signature of knowledge or SE-NIZK argument must have at least 3 group elements and 2 verification equations. Since our constructions match these lower bounds, we have the smallest size signature of knowledge and the smallest size SE-SNARK possible.

Type: Proceedings paper
Title: Snarky Signatures: Minimal Signatures of Knowledge from Simulation-Extractable SNARKs
Event: CRYPTO 2017: 37th Annual International Cryptology Conference, 20-24 August 2017, Santa Barbara, California, USA
ISBN-13: 9783319637143
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-63715-0_20
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63715-0_20
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Computer Science
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10039783
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