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Application of intermixing to p-type GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for series resistance reduction in vertical cavity devices

Khan, A; Woodbridge, K; Ghisoni, M; Parry, G; Beyer, G; Roberts, J; Pate, M; (1995) Application of intermixing to p-type GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for series resistance reduction in vertical cavity devices. Journal of Applied Physics , 77 (10) pp. 4921-4926. 10.1063/1.359297.

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Abstract

In this paper we experimentally investigate the application of selective interdiffusion to p-type (Zn doped) distributed Bragg reflectors, as employed within a range of vertical cavity devices, as a means of lowering the series resistance. Various rapid thermal anneal temperatures and times are studied, both with and without silica encapsulants. The degree of intermixing, and hence series resistance reduction, is found to be cap dependent and this is verified both by secondary ion mass spectrometry and electrical resistance measurements. Both these techniques suggest that the intermixing, due primarily to Zn enhanced interdiffusion, is increased when no encapsulant is used. In this case a series resistance reduction approaching 50% is achieved within the 14 period GaAs/AlAs Bragg reflector. In the silica encapsulated case Ga vacancies are injected into the structure and these suppress the movement of Zn. The resulting Ga diffusion coefficient in this case is found to decrease by a factor of 3 relative to the uncapped case. The effects of interdiffusion on the reflection properties of the reflector, under various anneal conditions, are also described. This has previously been studied theoretically [Floyd et al., J. Appl. Phys. 75, 7666 (1994)] but here we offer experimental evidence on the optical effects of intermixing. We show that the peak reflectivity is found to decrease only slightly with temperature and time, again depending on capping conditions. The major effect contributing to the reflectivity decrease however is surface degradation due to As out-diffusion. The reflectivity does decrease appreciably (∼10%) when the interdiffusion length of the group III atoms becomes a significant fraction of the quarter-wave thickness of the GaAs/AlAs layers, as demonstrated in samples annealed at high temperatures and for long times (960 °C/360 s). These issues, along with that of planar integration of vertical cavity lasers and other devices such as modulators and detectors, are of importance for future applications. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.

Type: Article
Title: Application of intermixing to p-type GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for series resistance reduction in vertical cavity devices
DOI: 10.1063/1.359297
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Electronic and Electrical Eng
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10029319
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